Early-stage vascular calcification (microcalcification) is strongly associated with both progression of vascular disease and subsequently myocardial infarction, stroke, and death. Although vascular calcification is an independent risk factor for vascular disease, conventional imaging is still insufficient in early detection and treatment is currently unavailable. In this thesis, synthetic protein, protein S Gla, derived from coagulation factor protein S, was assessed for application as a novel detector and inhibitor for microcalcification. This functional assessment of protein S Gla entailed testing of its ability to interfere with calcification in cell-based assays, its effectivity in detecting early-stage calcification both in cell and tissue context and elucidating the effects of treatment with protein S Gla on cell behaviour. Based on the combined findings of this dissertation, protein S Gla is on its way towards a glamorous future as a novel early-stage vascular calcification detector and treatment.